Ocean Survival Swimming – Part 2

by Nancy Soares on November 3, 2014

Editor’s note: After a short break to talk about the TR retreat and the newest Ranger, we return to the subject of Ocean Survival Swimming. This essay by Eric Soares is published as is. It’s opinionated, funny, and informative. Enjoy.

Eric crawls in through the surf after a swim

Eric crawls in through the surf after a swim 

An old mariner’s maxim. This rule is true in most boat capsizes, where sailors will be rescued by the Coast Guard or another boat. However, in some ocean kayaking situations, swimming for it is the best option because kayakers are capable of rescuing themselves – and their boats. The purpose of this article is to describe survival situations in which swimming is the most practicable option. Specific ocean swimming techniques are provided for each situation.

Swimming for it can only be considered when the paddler is prepared for swimming in the ocean. The first element of preparation centers around ATTITUDE, followed by PHYSICAL READINESS, then EQUIPMENT, and finally, BASIC SWIMMING SKILL. Let’s examine each of these prerequisites.

Many sea kayakers view their relationship with the ocean as two dimensional. They see themselves as being ON top of the water. They do not envision themselves IN the water. There is nothing wrong with this view, except that kayaks are not houseboats, barges, ferries, speedboats, or yachts. Those other boats float on top of the water, but kayaks are almost part of the water. If a three foot wave breaks against the side of a yacht, two drops of water spray the deck. If a three foot wave breaks against the side of a kayak, two feet of water wash over the deck. Big surprise, the kayaker is now IN the water.

If kayakers tip over, they are expected to execute a flawless roll. This is how it should be. But what happens when the roll is flubbed? According to the incidents reported in Matt Broze’s safety column, the usual reaction is near drowning. Simply put, most sea kayakers get in trouble because they were not prepared to be IN the water. As a first step toward in-water safety, kayakers should view kayaking as an in-water activity.

Once kayakers are thinking, “I will be in the water,” they should ensure that they are physically fit to be in the water. It requires much more energy to swim a mile than it does to paddle a mile. Thus, general fitness is a must, as is immediate food energy. Maintaining good nutrition is important. Before the day’s excursion, kayakers should drink plenty of liquid (not alcohol) and eat a hearty breakfast. While kayaking, water and snacks should be handy and consumed regularly, just as in backpacking. Kayakers should carry emergency liquid on their persons, in case of a sudden swim. Ideally, each paddler should carry a twelve ounce container of juice that has an instant carbohydrate complex mixed in. The juice supplies sugar and water, and the carbohydrate complex (available from body building outlets) supplies longlasting energy. The liquid and food energy will stave off hypothermia, and provide the energy needed for a sustained swim. Without energy, swimming is futile.

With a realistic attitude and adequate energy, the sea kayaker must now turn to equipment necessary for ocean swimming. The body must be warm and protected from the elements and from injury. John Dowd, in his book Sea Kayaking, provides good advice as to what to wear for warmth. William Sanders and Derek Hutchinson also list clothing requirements for warmth in their kayaking books. Unfortunately, Hutchinson, a very experienced paddler, asks if the advanced sea kayaker should “…paddle stinking, sweating, steaming and prickling in rubber equipment like an out-of-work frogman? Or is he to dress like a sensibly turned-out hill walker, depending more on his skill and expertise to keep dry, and meet the freezing rescue when the time comes – if ever”.

The implication is that the experienced kayaker should not wear the full wetsuit. My advice is in cold weather or in cold water, wear the full wetsuit and survive “an unlikely capsize”. Diver’s wetsuits are not comfortable but modern kayaking, windsurfing, and surfing wetsuits are. Polypropylene, fleece, or wool underclothing can be worn under the wetsuit for extra warmth. Wool sweaters and spray jackets can be worn over the wetsuit for even more protection. Dry suits (sealed at the neck and cuffs), are comfortable and warm, when worn with proper underclothing. However, dry suits are bulky to swim in, do not allow the swimmer to cool off, and are death traps should they get punctured. Someday, dry suits will be made of kevlar or some other puncture resistant material. In the meantime, do not wear them if you will be far from shore.

A neoprene hood which covers the shoulders should also be worn. The face can be protected and warmed with a wool or neoprene mask. Raw lanolin applied to the skin can help retain body heat. For hand protection, polypropylene or wool liners can be worn under neoprene or leather gloves or mitts.

To protect yourself from the sun, wear a crushable jungle hat with neck cord. The jungle hat can be worn over the helmet and scuba hood, if necessary. Sun cream with a sun protection factor of 15 or more should be applied to exposed skin. Glacier glasses or ski goggles with a strap can be worn for eye protection against the sun.

Other equipment that will aid a swimmer include a watch, diver’s compass, floating survival knife, signal gear (flares at least), and a personal flotation device (PFD). The PFD should not be worn just to keep your head above water should you become unconscious. It should help you float when you need to float and not impede you when you need to swim. The ideal PFD can be inflated orally or with a CO2 cartridge. Diver’s buoyancy compensators are the best PFD’s, although they are expensive. Optional swimming gear includes Audrey Sutherland’s finsmasksnorkel (FIMS), nose and ear plugs, and swimming goggles. This gear will aid the swimmer in any survival situation.

Eric demonsrates his frog outfit

Eric demonstrates his frog outfit

The photograph shows a sea kayaker completely outfitted for survival swimming. In addition to resembling an extraterrestrial being, the kayaker is prepared to swim two miles in 45 degrees air temperature against a 15 knot wind, in 50 degrees water temperature. He is wearing winterweight polypropylene underwear, socks, and glove liners beneath his surfing wetsuit, booties, and rosin-coated neoprene mitts. His head is protected by his shoulder length neoprene hood, crash helmet, jungle hat, and neoprene mask. His buoyancy compensator is half inflated and contains flares, a chemical light, a pemmican bar, and a signal mirror. He is also wearing a diver’s wrist compass, watch, survival knife, and a half filled water flask. This paddler has the right equipment for average ocean conditions. He would adjust his equipment to paddle in tropical or polar conditions.

Once attitude, physical readiness, and equipment needs are met, sea kayakers must make sure that they possess the basic swimming skills. Amazingly, due probably to the on-top-of-the-water attitude mentioned earlier, many sea kayakers are lousy swimmers. Some people may feebly argue that swimming expertise and stamina are not needed in a river with the shore so close, but no sane person can state that swimming skills are unnecessary in the ocean, with the shoreline on the horizon. Basic swimming skills are a must.

The basic swimming skills that paddlers must master in a pool before learning ocean survival swimming techniques are:

  • float on back for five minutes without flotation (to recuperate)
  • tread water for 30 minutes (to eat, think, plan, observe, navigate, recuperate)
  • in 14 minutes, swim 500 meters of side stroke. Repeat for the other three basic strokes (breast stroke, crawl, and back stroke) (to have a swimming style for varied situations)
  • in 14 minutes, swim 300 meters of side stroke, kick only. Repeat for the other three strokes (to possess a swimming kick for varied situations)
  • in 14 minutes, swim 300 meters of side stroke, arm stroke only. Repeat for the other strokes (to possess an arm stroke for varied situations)
  • swim 1 mile in 45 minutes (to build stamina)
  • swim 25 meters underwater in three breaths (to build lung power, to swim under obstacles)
  • do five underwater forward rolls in one breath. Repeat, doing backward rolls (to master turbulence)

At this point you may be wondering, “How do I master these so-called ‘basic’ swimming skills?” The answer is training in a swimming program. You must begin and maintain a swimming regimen. This program can be taught and coached by you. All you need is a book on swimming and a pool. Swimming books can be found in libraries and bookstores. Most cities have pools and times for lap swimming. If you elect to train yourself, the following progressive schedule is recommended:

  • learn and practice the four basic swimming strokes. Emphasize form. Practice kicks and arm strokes until you master the elements. Practice each until you are tired. Work for distance
  • once the strokes are mastered, practice until you can comfortably swim the 14 minute 300 and 500 meter swims. Rest by floating and treading water; do not hold the side of the pool or stand up
  • once the basic distances are achieved, graduate to swimming 1,000 meters in 30 minutes. Again, rest by floating or treading water
  • after swimming 1,000 meters becomes easy, swim a full mile in 45 minutes. Remember to float or tread water to rest
  • your final workout will consist of swimming a mile, alternating among strokes. After the mile, practice swimming 25 meters underwater. Practice forward and backward rolls – plus whatever else you wish

When the final workout becomes routine, you will be more than ready to handle calm seas and lakes, and you will be ready to learn ocean survival swimming.

As mentioned before, basic swimming skill can be learned without help. However, swimming is learned much more rapidly through competent instruction. The Red Cross, YWCA, YMCA, colleges, and communities often offer inexpensive swimming lessons. Check these out. Also, you may wish to join a Masters swimming club and swim laps with others. Basic swimming is an excellent way to maintain fitness, and it complements paddling by strengthening upper body muscles and increasing endurance.

We hope you have enjoyed the Four Prerequisites to Ocean Swimming. The next part in this series will explicate Ocean Swimming Training: Studying the Waves, Body Surfing, and and Open Ocean Swimming. We welcome your comments!

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Tsunami Ranger Retreat 2014: A New Ranger!

by Nancy Soares on October 12, 2014

Captain Kuk: When Eric and I first came up with the idea of a kayaking team in 1984 we wanted to have a system for rating the skills of the paddlers that we planned on inviting to join us. Eric proposed that we use naval ranking. Having been in the U.S. Navy he was familiar with the various ranks and how they worked in a complex organization. All navies use a form of ranking as well as sailors in the merchant marine and private sector going way back in time.

Capt. Kakuk workin' it. Photo by El Rey

Capt. Kakuk workin’ it on the 2014 retreat.

What does it take to make a Tsunami Ranger?

We decided to create a test that would rate the cadets to determine their rank when joining the Rangers. It would be a test based on kayaking skills, leadership and communication (verbal and hand signals) with the other team members. The test included evaluating the conditions that were present on that day and all aspects of boat handling. This would include basic surf launch/landings, surfing skills, rock garden white water, and caves and rescues. In the beginning Eric and I ran the test, rated the performance and awarded rank.

Scott in whitewater

Scott in white water

During the test the candidate would lead a mission, directing the other members of the team while looking out for hazards and finding play spots. A few other skills are required like how to set up for a photo op and of course, prepare a full lunch for everyone on the test day. The food part is important in that the candidate must demonstrate how to prepare, stow, transport (while keeping it dry) and feed four or more people. In addition to the kayaking skills test, and perhaps most important, is how they participate and contribute to the team and are they fun to be with. At the end of the test we have a debriefing and then a great party that night when rank is awarded.

Paula was a perfect candidate for the Rangers in that we have known her for more than six years and she has been on many of our retreats so we were familiar with her skills. We also know her to be competent in camping, cooking and social skills so we were happy to invite her to join the Rangers.

Cave surging

Cave surging

In the past when we invited people we would let them know a year before hand so they could prepare but Scott, Steve and I decided to spring it on Paula and do the test the next day! After a bit of persuading she agreed and the test was on. Scott was to administer the test with Deb as back up. Steve and I paddled along, played, watched, cheered and got some photos. It was a full day of water, rocks, caves, surf, pour-overs, swimming and adventuring with landings, launchings and lunching. At the end of the day we paddled back to our perfect camp and had a fabulous evening celebrating Paula’s initiation on our wild and free beach along the beautiful Mendocino coast. Some Tsunami Rangers are made and some are born. Paula is a natural.

Welcome LtJG Paula Renouf!

Welcome Lt JG Paula Renouf!

Deb: The TR retreat was yet another memorable event! Smaller turnout than usual, but the energy was bold and energized as ever. I have to say that Dave was missed! I was even concerned that in his absence, we Tsunami Rangers may not achieve our natural retreat pinnacle.

Deb cruising the rock gardens

Deb cruising the rock gardens

The days of the retreat were spent kayaking and playing in various galactic energy zones. By night, we ate amazingly delicious food and drank many worthy beverages, including outstanding tequila of course! One night the feast was prepared and served by the “Cabana Boys” in full dress regalia. Breathtaking!

Gotta have the flag!

Gotta have the flag!

Scott: As usual, we exchanged many emails over a couple of months prior to the retreat. The biggest stumbling block seemed to be scheduling for the PNW part of the tribe. Dandy Don Kiesling had the US Surf Ski Championships in San Francisco Bay and Paula was returning to New Zealand from SF and had little time for the retreat. Some of the tribe had bagged so we made an executive decision and set a date. In the end, Deb and Paula planned on catching us on the second day out. We invited our good friends Jeff and Cate from Liquid Fusion in Ft. Bragg and in spite of their busy schedule they said they would try to join us.

Finally in mid-August Jim, El Rey and I set out from an undisclosed beach and made the beautiful paddle to Thunder Cove. The forecast was for a week of flat seas, 2-4 feet at 18 seconds and 10 knots or less of wind. Wow!

On the way...

On the way…

Steve: On Day One at midday the advance team consisting of Captain Jim Kakuk, Scott Becklund and I paddled out into a beautiful calm. After gliding through some rock gardens a reddish tinge on the surface of the ocean surprised us. Not a healthy sign, but the water closer to shore was clear and it was nearly gone when we returned several days later. After a few hours paddling we turned shoreward to one of our favorite beaches. There was a large group of seals lounging in the rock gardens as we headed in. They looked startled to see us but then almost seemed to recognize us as some of their frequent Tsunami visitors. After a while they went about their business with only occasional stints scrutinizing our trio of Tsunami X-15’s.



We made camp and set about preparing one of many delicious meals, including the abalone we collected over the course of the retreat. We spent the next day exploring rock gardens, abalone diving, riding waves in a convergence zone and meandering along stretches of beach. Our buddies were due to arrive so in the afternoon we started scanning the horizon for boats.

Seal landings

Seal landings

We made several seal landings in the rock gardens to assess promising hot spots for abalone. We found one place that looked really good. Scott was ready first as always and was about to leap off the rocks when a big surge knocked him over and washed one of his fins into a tide pool. He recovered his gear and slipped into the water, morphing into his seal/otter form, gleeful to be back in his element. I was next up but another big surge washed me into the sea before I had my fins on. Captain Kuk took note and followed in a more graceful fashion just as Scott popped to the surface with an abalone that was at least nine inches long. Smiling behind his mask, he reported that the place was covered with large abalone at about 25 feet. When we were done harvesting dinner we got out with better timing and no washouts. Then Jim slid down the rocks in his boat and watched Scott and me as we tried to mimic his smooth re-entry.

Taking a break from the boats

Taking a break from the boats

Scott: On Day Two after a leisurely breakfast, we played in the sea wondering if anyone else would show up. Later we hiked and spotted some interesting places we thought needed exploration with masks and fins. Back at camp we noticed the wind picking up and the seas building. Regardless, we launched and paddled towards our planned dive spot. As we came out of Thunder Cove and turned south, Jim pointed out Paula and Deb heading towards us about half a mile away. It’s an incredible thing to greet friends you haven’t seen for a long time out on the water. With hoots and hugs the three of us sent them off to the beach to unpack while we checked out our wonderful new dive spot.

Paula and Deb arrive

Paula and Deb arrive

Back on the beach after dinner, Jim told Paula we planned to test her for membership in the Tsunami Rangers the next day. With grace and humility Paula tried to pass. She had many claims why she wasn’t worthy to be a candidate but we rejected all of them.



Deb: It all started with the rum! Paula and I brought an exquisite bottle of “Stolen” rum from NZ, but oddly the Rangers just didn’t seem all that excited. All were willing to give it a try of course! My sense was that the TR’s had suddenly morphed into Tequila snobs – which is obviously true! I knew that if Dave was there, he would embrace the fine rum con mucho gusto! He certainly knows good rum, being a Captain Morgan connoisseur.

A retreat without Dave is like a day without...starfish???

A retreat without Dave is like a day without…starfish???

Well, as it turned out, the first swig went exceptionally well – eyebrows lifted, followed by good eye contact, and nods around the fire – avast ye! Many things were passed around the fire that night besides the captivating bottle of “Stolen” rum that before long became a vessel of only vapors! Rest assured that by then the Tsunami Rangers tribe was well on the way to reaching their own natural pinnacle, even in Dave’s absence. All was as it should be!

All as it should be!

All as it should be!

During the “Stolen” evening, Paula accepted the invitation to take her TR test! (Congratulations Lieutenant JG Paula!) The test ensued in fine form the next day – in spite of the rum residue! Scott led the test bravely and confidently.

Scott takes a break

Scott takes a break

Scott: Paula’s test actually began during the pre-retreat emails. Deb had asked if Paula was invited. Of course the answer was yes. We had already discussed creating a test for her because she brings so much to our group. We discussed the ramifications of including a partner as a Ranger. That would be a first but it had nothing to do with our wanting Paula to feel the sense of truly belonging to our tribe. I thought of her as one of us already so I was excited to be there while she tested.

Tsunami Ranger salute

Tsunami Ranger salute

On Day Three, Jim asked Deb and me to run the test. Now it was real and on! With the usual warmup and Ranger salute the test began. Here are some highlights. First, Paula had to observe the sea and report the conditions and hazards both seen and possible. The weather forecast from several days ago had proven to be inaccurate. Deb and Paula had chased storm winds down from Oregon and while the wind didn’t hit as hard as they thought, the seas rose dramatically with swell arriving from two directions. The skies were dark and damp from the heavy marine mist that arrived the night before. All this added to the drama as we discussed our on-water plans. With Paula leading we launched and headed out to play and explore the local rocks and caves.

Wending through caves

Time to explore!

On the water Paula is as gracious as she is on land. This is one of the many things that make her such a fun paddle partner. With a few hints like “Set a sweep paddler”, she led us out of the cove and to the first of many play spots, “King’s Wash”. This feature was named after we were entertained by not one but two Kings, El Rey and his daughter, getting maytagged there on a previous visit. Paula wisely paddled around to avoid replaying the tape and becoming part of local lore. As the day passed Paula was fearless as she continued to lead us through caves, over washes and to a point in the test I was really looking forward to, the seal landing. Jim, King and I had scouted this area the previous day for both diving and landing, but with the changes in conditions, all that went out the window. And today it was time for Paula to lead and us to follow.

Checking out the caves

Checking out the caves

As we passed yet another cove Deb and I made eye contact. The great thing about being part of a team like the Rangers is that you learn to communicate without words and with a minimal amount of body language. It’s extraordinary. Deb clearly thought the same thing I did: time for a seal landing now! I got ahead of Paula and signaled it was time to land. When we saw the rocks the seas were calm but as we approached some mixed sets washed through turning the shelf white with a confused cross wash. We knew it was just a matter of timing. Ahh, the best laid plans of mice and Rangers… I went first to help Paula land her skirted Mariner. I’ve done it countless times but I f*%!ed up.

Seal launch and land

Seal land and launch

In order to demonstrate how to land (and show off) I picked what I thought was the best spot but instead I flipped into the ocean and had to swim back in, this time with more success. Paula then paddled to me landing beautifully and showing me up. Part of me wanted to knock her over so she could try again and hopefully get creamed like me but I let her land. Then she launched back out as if on picnic.

Paula exercises playfulness and skill

Paula exercises playfulness and skill

Speaking of food, after what seemed like hours King and I rafted up and talked about mutiny and whether we could live with ourselves if we resorted to cannibalism. As it turned out, my decision to forgo tormenting Paula led to good karma. After a quick huddle we landed on a soft sandy beach just as the sun broke out. As beach meals go, this one will be remembered forever. Paula, with Deb’s help, laid out a meal fit for a glamping magazine. And she put it together on rations she had packed without knowing she was going to have to feed famished Rangers. Wow!

Paula backs up to a blowhole

Paula backs up to a blowhole

Steve: Paula astonished me in one of the most critical elements of the test, the lunchtime spread for all present. We landed on a beach and then in moments she laid out a gourmet feast such as I have never had on retreat. There were three types of cheese, including one infused with truffles, and exquisite haute cuisine crackers with fresh fruit and vegetables, a large bottle of fine beer, and other delights. The coup de grace was fresh blueberries drenched in brandy and dark chocolate! At that point she had earned my vote 100% but she continued the test for several more hours in the water!

Paula stylin' it

Paula stylin’ it

Scott: At the end of the day, Jim, Deb and I privately went over our observations of Paula’s test. Independently we had each come to almost the same conclusion and had ranked her the same. Paula has walked the walk for years. Under Deb’s mentorship she has become a highly efficient and competent kayaker. She paddles in challenging places and is comfortable in a variety of boats. During the test she was a bit hesitant to lead but only at first. At the beginning she could have kept better track of the pack and kept the group closer together, but bottom line Paula led us through a long, fun day and completely wore us out. At the debriefing, I told her she could work on her on-water communication using hand signals. But her overall knowledge of the ocean, boat handling skills and understanding of group dynamics make her one of my most treasured paddling partners.

Scaott and Deb talking deep philosophy

Scott and Deb talking deep philosophy

Around the fire that evening after dinner we all discussed the test and our thoughts of the day as a group and gave Paula the rank of Lieutenant JG. Congratulations Paula!

Scott congratulates the newest Ranger

Scott congratulates the newest Ranger

Steve: Paula did not expect to be asked to take the day-long Tsunami Ranger test. When she was invited to do so by Captain Kuk she was initially quite surprised and tried to postpone it to a later date when she would be better prepared. We impressed upon her that, as the Borg would say, “resistence is futile”. I will say she was very competent, playful and skilled at all the stages of the test. Her paddling and her approach to the underlying theme of the Rangers (have as much fun in the water as possible and stick your bow into as much rock and roll action as possible) was obvious to all.

Abs for everyone!

Abs for everyone!

On the last night of the retreat we had just put away a delicious feast of abalone, fresh vegetables and assorted other delicacies when we looked up as and there was Jeff paddling into the cove! We jumped to our feet, greeted him at the beach and hauled the food back out for him. He had tried to join us the previous evenings after a full day of teaching rock gardening classes but the fog was too thick for a safe solo paddle at sunset. We had a great time paddling back with him the next day as his easy-going but well-honed paddling technique is a blast to behold.

Jeff demonstrates his well-honed paddling technique - as influenced by teh Tsunami Rangers...

Jeff demonstrates his well-honed paddling technique – as influenced by the Tsunami Rangers…






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Ocean Survival Swimming – A Sea Kayaker’s Guide to Staying Alive in the Water

September 22, 2014

ShareEditor’s Note: One from the archives: Eric Soares wrote this essay illustrating the Tsunami Rangers’ approach to sea kayaking emphasizing ocean swimming as a key skill for sea kayakers. We’ll publish his thesis in five parts. This first part is the outline for Ocean Survival Swimming. Note that Eric refers to buoyancy compensators instead of [...]

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California’s Lost Coast – Extreme Hiking in Southern Humboldt County

September 1, 2014

ShareIn June, my son Nick and I hiked the Lost Coast of Northern California. It’s an extreme hike – there’s no trail for much of the way – and it took us four days and three nights. We started at Shelter Cove and hiked north to the mouth of the Mattole River. Most people start [...]

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Tsunami Ranger Sea Cave Terms

August 11, 2014

ShareEditor’s note: Thanks to Michael Powers, Eric Soares, and Jim Kakuk for these fabulous photos. One of the cool things about the Tsunami Rangers is the lexicon they invented to describe the marine environment. Some of these terms have probably become mainstream, but just for fun I thought I’d reproduce the Tsunami Ranger Sea Cave [...]

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Up a Hot Creek With a Paddle – Sea Kayaking in the Oregon Desert

July 21, 2014

ShareOn a cloudy day in April we headed east. Clear sailing until five hours out and a pronghorn played chicken with the truck so I had to cross into the opposite lane and take my foot off the gas so it could pass on the right and run in front of the truck at 60 [...]

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Reef Madness 2014 – Sea Kayaking Mayhem Strikes Again!

June 30, 2014

Shareby Ed Anderson Editor’s note: Thanks so much for this post to Ed Anderson who always does such an amazing job as Master of Ceremonies and Paddler Extraordinaire at Reef Madness. And thanks too to Lars Howlett and Jim Kakuk for all the great photos. Paddle. Party. Piracy. That’s a perfect day! Sunday June 8th [...]

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Put Yourself in the Picture! – The Armchair Sea Kayaker

June 9, 2014

ShareEditor’s note: This is one of the topics Eric had lined up for 2012. Some of the featured pictures he picked out himself and he specifically suggested that you “Put YOURSELF in the picture”. I can’t look at a painting of a seascape without evaluating it in terms of my kayak. Could I survive in [...]

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Fitness for Sea Kayakers – Hips

May 19, 2014

ShareHave you ever exited your kayak after a long paddle to find your first steps stiff and awkward until you find your “land legs”? When we kayak our hips are mostly stationary at about a 90-degree angle. Apart from getting in and out of the boat there’s not a lot of movement in those joints. [...]

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Riding Frozen Waves Of Water

April 28, 2014

ShareBy Tsunami Ranger Steve King As winter inevitably yields to spring I escaped to soar and crash down frozen waves of water in British Columbia not far from Revelstoke, Canada. I am not referring to a literally frozen wave of water, such as this image below from one of the Great Lakes during this winter’s [...]

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